Soft tissue mobilization: ​It is important to recognize the role of muscles and their attachments around the joints. The goal of soft tissue mobilization (STM) is to break up inelastic or fibrous muscle tissue (called 'myofascial adhesions') such as scar tissue from a back injury, move tissue fluids, and relax muscle tension.

Spinal manipulation, also called spinal manipulative therapy or manual therapy, combines moving and jolting joints, massage, exercise, and physical therapy. It's designed to relieve pressure on joints, reduce inflammation, and improve nerve function. It's often used to treat back, neck, shoulder, and headache pain.

Manual therapy, or manipulative therapy, is a physical treatment primarily used byPhysical Therapists, massage therapists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, chiropractors, osteopaths, and osteopathic physicians to treat musculoskeletal pain and disability; it most commonly includes kneading and manipulation ...

Spinal traction is a form of decompression therapy that relieves pressure on the spine. It can be performed manually or mechanically. Spinal traction is used to treat herniated discs, sciatica, degenerative disc disease, pinched nerves, and many other back conditions.

Spinal mobilization is a type of passive movement of a spinal segment or region. Spinal mobilization has been described as "a gentle, often oscillatory, passive movement applied to a spinal region or segment so as gently to increase the passive range of motion of that segment or region."

Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS) is an electronic stimulus generator that transmits electrical impulses of various configurations to a needle electrode that is inserted just below the skin for the purpose of pain management.

Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS), also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is the elicitation of muscle contraction using electric impulses. The impulses are generated by a device and are delivered through electrodes on the skin near to the muscles being stimulated.

Functional fitness exercises train your muscles to work together and prepare them for daily tasks by simulating common movements you might do at home, at work or in sports. For example, a squat is a functional exercise because it trains the muscles used when you rise up and down from a chair or pick up low objects.